Importance of Photovoltaic (PV) for Creating Future Clean Energy Society and Our Approaches of PV-Powered Vehicle Applications

 

Prof. Masafumi Yamaguchi

Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya, Japan

  

Abstract: Although photovoltaics (PV) are expected to contribute as major electricity and energy source, there are some important issues such as continuous development of PV R&D and creation of new market to be developed. This paper emphasizes acceleration of PV system installations in Japan in order to overcome difficulty of increasing nuclear energy. Cumulative PV system installations in Japan with 180GW, 150 GW and 110GW by 2030, and 370GW and 170GW by 2050 are estimated for optimistic cases, and pessimistic cases, respectively.
This paper also overviews PV R&D activities in Japan as the PV R&D Project Leader of NEDO and JST. Present status of various solar cells efficiencies under NEDO and JST PV R&D projects are presented: 44.4% for concentrator III-V compound 3-junction solar cell, 37.9% for 1-sun III-V compound 3-junctiion cell, 26.7% for single-crystal Si cell, 22.9% for CIGS cell, 14.0% for a-Si based 3-junction cell, 11.9% for dye-sensitized cell and 11.2% for organic cell. Efficiency potential of various solar cells is also discussed.
Future prospects of PV and our recent approaches towards creation of “Mobility Society by using Solar Energy” are discussed. Very large-scale installation of PV power systems is needed and thus development of ultra-high performance, low cost and highly reliable solar cells is very important. In addition, development of low cost and long lifetime batteries, highly reliable and intelligent system technologies such as smart grids is necessary.
According to the NEDO’s Interim Report “PV-Powered Vehicle Strategy Committee”, new larger PV market with more than 10GW and 50GW in 2030 and 2040, respectively and cumulative market of 0.4TW by 2040 are expected to be established. Our approaches to automobile application by using high-efficiency and low-cost solar cell modules are also presented. We are now challenging III-V/Si tandem solar cells. Because III-V/Si tandem solar cells have great potential for high-efficiency, low-cost and light-weight solar cells. Recently, we have developed high-efficiency (32%) InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs thin-film 3-junction solar cells module with an area of 32cm x 32cm and 30% efficiency InGaP/GaAs/Si mechanically stacked 3-junction solar cell. Those are expected to be one of seeds for solar electric vehicle applications. In addition, the other approaches such as static low concentrator PV (CPV) and III-V/Si partial CPV modules are also presented.

 

Biogrpahy: Masafumi Yamaguchi is Distinguished Professor at the Toyota Technological Institute (TTI), Nagoya, Japan, Director of the Research Center for Smart Energy Technology (SET) at the TTI, Research Supervisor of the "Creative Clean Energy Generation using Solar Energy" under the JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Visiting Professor of the Kyushu University, and Visiting Professor of the Kyushu University. He was won the following awards the Becquerel Prize from the European Commission in 2004, The William Cherry Award from the IEEE in 2008, The PVSEC Award in 2011, The WCPEC Award in 2014, The Science and Technology Award by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 2015 for his outstanding contributions to the development of science and technology of photovoltaics such as high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells, space solar cells, concentrator solar cells and as one of the world leaders of the development of photovoltaics and as one of the driving forces for international co-operation.

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